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Understanding Credit Bureau Disputes

Ensure fair credit reporting by knowing your rights and how to fix issues

Your credit payment history is recorded in a file or report. These files or reports are maintained and sold by credit bureaus. You have a credit record on file at a credit bureau if you have ever applied for a credit or charge account, a personal loan, insurance or a job. Your credit record contains information about your income, debts, and credit payment history. It also indicates whether you have been sued or arrested, or have filed for bankruptcy. However, sometimes credit reports are wrong through no fault of your own. If you feel there is inaccurate or incomplete information within your credit report you can file a dispute to have it corrected. Learn more about fair credit bureau reporting and how to file disputes below.

Credit Report Disputes - Know your Rights

The Fair Credit Reporting Act (FCRA) is a federal law designed to improve the confidentiality and accuracy of credit reports used by businesses when evaluating your application.


Your rights under the Fair Credit Reporting Act:

  • You have the right to receive a copy of your credit report. The copy of your report must contain all of the information in your file at the time of your request.
  • You have the right to know the name of anyone who received your credit report in the last year for most purposes or in the last two years for employment purposes.
  • Any company that denies your application must supply the name and address of the credit bureau it contacted, provided the denial was based on information given by the credit bureau. And if a FICO score was used as part of the decision, the credit card issuer will also send a letter to you with your FICO score.
  • You have the right to a free copy of your credit report when your application is denied because of information supplied by the credit bureau. Your request to resolve the credit dispute must be made within 60 days of receiving your denial notice.
  • If you contest the completeness or accuracy of information in your report, you should file a credit report dispute with the credit bureau and with the company that furnished the information to the bureau. Both the credit bureau and the furnisher of information are legally obligated to investigate your dispute.
  • You have a right to add a summary explanation to your credit report if your dispute is not resolved to your satisfaction.

Credit Applications - Know your Rights

Per the Equal Credit Opportunity Act (ECOA), when creditors evaluate a credit application, they cannot lawfully engage in discriminatory practices. The ECOA prohibits credit discrimination on the basis of sex, race, marital status, religion, national origin, age, or receipt of public assistance. Creditors may ask for this information (except religion) in certain situations, but may not use it to discriminate when deciding whether to grant you credit.
The ECOA protects consumers who deal with companies that regularly extend credit, including banks, small loan and finance companies, retail and department stores, credit card companies and credit unions. Everyone who participates in the decision to grant credit, including real estate brokers who arrange financing, must follow this law. Businesses applying for credit also are protected by this law.


Your rights under the Equal Credit Opportunity Act:

  • You cannot be denied credit based on your race, sex, marital status, religion, age, national origin or receipt of public assistance.
  • You have the right to have reliable public assistance considered in the same manner as other income.
  • If you are denied credit, you have a legal right to know why.

Credit Billing and EFT Statements - Know your Rights

It is important to check credit billing and electronic fund transfer (EFT) account statements regularly. These documents may contain mistakes or reflect improper charges or transfers. If you find an error or discrepancy, notify the company and contest the error immediately.

The Fair Credit Billing Act (FCBA) and Electronic Fund Transfer Act (EFTA) establish procedures for resolving credit billing disputes and mistakes on electronic fund transfer account statements, including:

  • Charges or electronic fund transfers that you — or anyone you have authorized to use your account — have not made.
  • Charges or electronic fund transfers that are incorrectly identified or show the wrong amount or date.
  • Computation or similar errors.
  • Failure to reflect payments, credits or electronic fund transfers properly.
  • Not mailing or delivering credit billing statements to your current address, as long as that address was received by the creditor in writing at least 20 days before the billing period ended.
  • Charges or electronic fund transfers for which you request an explanation or documentation, due to a possible error.

The FCBA applies only to "open end" credit accounts — credit and charge cards, revolving charge accounts (such as department store accounts), and overdraft checking accounts. It does not apply to installment loans or credit sales that are paid according to a fixed schedule until the entire amount is paid back, such as an automobile loan. The EFTA applies to electronic fund transfers, such as those involving automatic teller machines (ATMs), point-of-sale debit transactions, and other electronic banking transactions.

Debt and Debt Collections - Know your Rights

You are responsible for your debts. If you fall behind in paying your creditors, you may be contacted by a "debt collector." A debt collector is any person, other than the creditor, who regularly collects debts owed to others. This includes collection agencies and lawyers who collect debts on a regular basis. You have the right to be treated fairly by debt collectors.

The Fair Debt Collection Practices Act (FDCPA) applies to personal, family and household debts. This includes money owed for the purchase of a car, for medical care or for credit card accounts. The FDCPA prohibits debt collectors from engaging in unfair, deceptive, or abusive practices while collecting these debts.

Your rights under the Fair Debt Collection Practices Act:

  • Debt collectors may contact you only between 8 a.m. and 9 p.m.
  • Debt collectors may not contact you at work if they know your employer disapproves.
  • Debt collectors may not harass or abuse you.
  • Debt collectors may not lie when collecting debts, such as falsely implying that you have committed a crime.
  • Debt collectors must identify themselves to you on the phone.
  • Debt collectors must stop contacting you if you ask them to in writing.

What to do if reporting your credit dispute doesn’t work

An investigation may not resolve your dispute with the credit bureau. If that's the case, ask the credit bureau to include your statement of the dispute in your file and in future reports. If requested, the credit bureau also will provide your statement to anyone who received a copy of the old report in the recent past. There usually is a fee for this service.
If you tell the information provider that you dispute an item, a notice of your dispute must be included anytime the information provider reports the item to a credit bureau.
If the investigation does not produce the results you need, and inaccurate information in your credit report is causing you harm, you may consider hiring a lawyer to help resolve your credit dispute, as a last resort.


The information provided by Fair Isaac Corporation is used with permission. Copyright © Fair Isaac Corporation. All rights reserved. Further use, reproduction, or distribution is governed by the Fair Isaac Copyright Usage Requirements, which, along with further information on credit, credit scoring, and related topics, can be found at Fair Isaac®, FICO®, myFICO®, and other marks are trademarks of Fair Isaac Corporation.